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Saturday, 5 November 2016

The real meaning of the peace symbol, or known as the crows Foot

The real meaning of the peace Symbol of Clover Foot

This comes out of pagan history and its foudations had nothing to do with peace. Antiochus Epiphanese some 200 years earlier than Nero


This pagan symbolism is coming back today and is promted by The Masonic lodge

Published by John christopher sunol 










The signs of the Crows foot, a significan sign for the coming New World Order


ISign of the Crows foot or what is more commonly known as the peace sign

I noticed people  wearing  this sign, they are involved with the Masonic lodge. This sign has been adopted by thos in the Masonic lodge we find  that this sign (The crows foot or the Peace movement symbolism is part of the Masonic Lodge


This iis the crux, of my fight against Same sex marriage and other


Published by John christopher sunol 













Phrophecies of world war:Russia preparing full BLOWN NUCLEAR for 2017

Fully blown world war 3, Nartons with Nuclear weapons - Full blow nuclear war with Russia sommetime after May 2017

These are only predictions and have had many predictions gone before Which have not come to pass, now some predictions are As close as January 22nd 2017. This another prediction that conflicts with the prophecy Sometime after May 2017, thus I do not have confidence in this either.  

These two dates are different, somone must be wrong, both can not be right, so I take no real notice to either date..I will just wait and see what happens (and do not tie my nickers in a not looking at such stupid nonsensical nonesense.)


They even predicted October 2016 and it has not come to pass so this is a false prediction which makes those making the prediction A set of false phrophets and anyone who Beleives in such are only fools

When this comes it will be quick and in a  way we are not thinking of at the moment

Published by John  christopher sunol 







Full blown nuclear War after May 2017





Full blown Nuclear war by May 2017

This I will wait and see. I have come accross Other phrophecies that have NOT come to pass when they give dates then they are false phophecies And God talks about false phrophecies in his word. I have heard this  before with dates and that has been a False phrophecy

So let us wait to After May 2017 and we will see what happens.. If world war 3 does not come then This phrophecy is also a false phrophecy

God sais in His word, many falso phrophets will come and go But if the phrophecy does not come to pass then this is of a false phrophet as well

As with all previos dates given, I do not fill my hopes up, I watch, wait and see and if it does not come ro pass, do not get despondent as this ia also a phrophecy from a False phrophet

Published by JOHN christopher Sunol



































FULL BLOWN nuclear war by May 2017





Full blown Nuclear war by May 2017


Link to other site on this topic

Also other dates have been predicted, January 22nd 2017, which one is wrong, so I do not (tie my nickers in anot worrying over such and I will accept neither date)


This I will wait and see. I have come accross Other phrophecies that have NOT come to pass when they give dates then they are false phophecies And God talks about false phrophecies in his word. I have heard this  before with dates and that has been a False phrophecy

So let us wait to After May 2017 and we will see what happens.. If world war 3 does not come then This phrophecy is also a false phrophecy

God sais in His word, many falso phrophets will come and go But if the phrophecy does not come to pass then this is of a false phrophet as well

As with all previos dates given, I do not fill my hopes up, I watch, wait and see and if it does not come ro pass, do not get despondent as this ia also a phrophecy from a False phrophet

Published by JOHN christopher Sunol





Battle for Mosul

The battle for Mosul is entering its final 

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi the leader is Islamoc State is a terrorist who has comitted crimes against humanity in the name of Allah and the prophet Mohommad. He needs to be captured alive, put on war crimes trials and humiliated before the world (put in Chains and whilst in Captivity paraded before the world to both humiliate him and show everyone what happens to an evil man like him that comitts such horrors as he has) to show how evil this man is and then given the Penalty that an international court dishes out. Much like the Nuerenberg trials with the Nazis and

Published by John Christopher Sunol















Trump could start Nuclear war if elected

Trump will start Nuclear war if elected

It would not realy matter who got in next week, Trump or Clinton. If a nuclear war is to start it will anyway, no matter who gets in the Oval Office, Trump or Clinton. 

Published by John Christopher Sunol 










This presidential United States election could herald the rise of the New Order, One world governmenr


Much is  riding on this coming Presidential election in 4 days time 
(9th November 2016) 
Depending on who wins will be the deciding factor but we are so close to
 World war 3 that this could happen at anytime without warning 

Published by John Christopher Sunol 
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Friday, 4 November 2016

Who do you think will win the United States election

United States Presidential Elections 2016

This is goimg to be  historic Presidential race and if Hillary Clinton does win she will make historer as the first female president and a dormee first lady As she was first lady under Bill Clinton 43rd president 1993-2001

If Donald Trump wins  it will make a different America.
L
Published John Christopher Sunol




Has Islamic State plunged us into a third world war:

Has Islamiic state plunged us into a third world war :


This makes it 184 countries have some sort of imnternal or external conflict. this ia more that in World war 1 / 1914 - 1918 which had over 100 countries involved in it - and World war 2 / 1939-1945 which had similar numbers. 

Somwith over 185 countries in a conflict of some soet and only 11 countries totaly free from all war, then by pure number we can honestly say that if is not world war 3 and we have not had that officialy designated, at some time in the future this very well could come to pass. 

As a conclusuion if we were living in September 1914 we would not have realized the war as world war one, or if we were living in November 1939 we may not have realozed the war as world war 2. We could be in a similar peeiod and it is not untill years later when the future historians go through what id happening now, this will be deisgnated world war three as happeening now. 

Published and written by John Christopher Sunol


















My mainGoal of life is to get the 1993, Clover Moore, homosexual ammendment villification legislation reppealed


This peice of legislation has been at the forefront of all my problems. I am going to dedicate my to seeing this bill repealed. 

Itmwas only passed by one vote in the NSW PARLIAMENT during this time. That was by The Former NSW Police Minister crossing the floor to get the numbers for this legislation to take place. 

This is uneeded legoslation and something that should haver never been put in place. It has been abused by only a couuple of people Which is the main root causes of all my troubles I am being used as a case study to further this legislation and njow I dedicate my life to see it overturned.

 this bill should have never been passed in the first place as it is the root cause for All my past cases

Written by John Christopher Sunol 










Religeous Villification cases


Islamic state is loosing in Mosul but gaining in other places

Islamic state looses in Mosul but gains elsewhere - Islamic state is far from defeaten, it will just shift battle grounds - Next battle ground for Islamic State - east Asia (southern PPhillipines  and Indonesia/Malaysia) - Also in other places

Abu Baku Al-Baldahdi - the terror leader (Or the Hitler, Mussolini or Tojo of today) - I beleive the only way off stopping this if for the wholeworld to get together and take out Abul Baka Bagdadhi Like we did between 1039-1945 to Hitler, Mussolini and Tojo and go at Islamic state at full strenght. Whilst it is loosing ground in Syria and Iraq Ialamic State is also looking at other opportunities (ie Phillipines, Indonesia amd Malaysia)

We all must realize this is very serious as it is all outfull on war And stipid frivolous issues such as same sex marriage must be shelved  as we are now at  war and we do not even have time to discuss uch stupidity in light of the Much more serious situation befalling us

Let us all be aware, untill Abu-bakual-balddaddi is caught himself or killed - the leader of Islamoc state and put on war crime trials in the international court - the war is not won and Islamic state is still the main enemy of all Humanity.



Published and written by John Christopher Sunol 









Islamic state is on its backfoot and could do anything in desperation

Islamic state is loosing in Mosul, but could start in Indonesia the world most popularist Islamic country - If Islamic state was to attack Australia it would have to start in Indomesia, the world Most popularist Islamic country - also with factor Indonnesia is predominently Sunni Islam and willing to join Islamic State whome is also Sunni

What is very concerning is that if Islamic state Looses Mosul in Iraq but it could win in other places and take the battle To further battle grounds and one of these ares could be Indonesia, the world most popularist Sunni Islam country combined with Southern Phillipines

This is a major worry as it is nota real loss, it is a  tactical defeat inone place and move to another, 


This is a real worry as it is not a  real loss but a tactical change.


Only for 4 years later for the allies that once had lost At Dunkirk to come back in Invasion Fleets on the Beaches of the same france to be historicaly known as D Day (1944)

The same with Islamic state to Loose in Mosul right now but shift the fight predominetly from the Middle East to South East Asia, Phillipines, Indonesia and Mayasia

This is a real concern and if I was the Australian Government I would scrap the debates on Sane sex marriage for get about this as it is a complelte wast of time, but would concentrate mon the National security debate and I would be offering the use of Northern Australia to the United States to  set up US military camps and Naval bases in places like Darwin, Broome and Townsville. 


We more than ever need the Americans to  be in South east Asia and if the present Phillipine Administration want the Americans out of Philippines then Australia needs to offer theAmerkcans our land for bases And let us forget the silly debate on same sex marriage and concentrate on National defense issues








Written by John Christopher Sunol 



















Islamic state now threatening to Invade Turkey

Islamic state preparing to attack Turkey

This is very seious as Turkey is a Member of NATO and if Islamic state it attacks Turkey it also attacks NATO and that brings the war into an entirely different level  of war. 

If Islamic state invades Turkey it invades Nato and that is an entirely different ball game.



Published by John Christopher Sunol











I am going to put the $53,000 debt on my bankruptcy and there is nothing Garry can do

Not a damn thing anyone, Including Garry can do about this as I can not ppay the $53,000 so I have the opportunity to be able to consolidate this
u
If Garry does notmlike this, he can go and jump as these are ways Out of this sitiuations

I will not now or ever accept These decisions against me as anything but fraud by trouble makers to set me up.


Published by John Christopher Sunol

Thursday, 3 November 2016

This is what has happened: read this and take note


I want to be thankful that others support me and this is proof as this articles in quite good and it comes from London in Britain. 

published by John Christopher Sunol


I can not afford to pay Garry the $53,000 as I am technically bankrupt



















I am going to claim a second bankruptcy to cover mt sudden debts


I have no choice for this as I am just coming off one bankruptcy. Garry done a bastardy on me as he would not file the decisions that went his way until I was nearly over my bankruptcy

This bastard I am not selling my home as it is in a trust and I am in the process now of claiming another bankruptcy to cover these debts. i will pay this thief not one red cent and I do not have to as I am going to go down this road. 

He is trying to get money out of a stone wall to expect me to pay him $53,000 as that is not going to happen. 

I wish to say no more over this online as I am in the process of doing this right now. 

I will also keep online and making you tubes and this mongrel of a man has no power or right to stop me as that is just not going to happen.

To finish this off i am going to push and lobby to get rid of these laws which done this to me, Garry is only a way of acting the real problem is the anti vilification law by Clover Moore which must be repealed

thanking you all

Yours

John 


The courts are not meant to be used as a weapon of Revenge

The Law is an Ass, Villification legislation passed n 1993:Clover Moore


The 1993 legislation of homosexual vilification amendment introduced  by the then MP for Bligh who was also the Sydney Lord Mayor is an "ass"  this law is not being used as it was meant for, it is being used as weapon for the financial gains of one person.


I have been ordered to pay this man "Garry "aka Gary Burns the some of $53,477.43 plus his  legal fees in recovering this money.

This is a travesty of justice  and very wrong for this man "Garry" aka Gary Burns To make money like this through telling lies abusing this  legislation.

I want this to go viral all over the world so that everyone knows what is happening in NSW Australia with this so called law to end what is being set up by propaganda to end Gay hate crime. 

This legislation rather that doing what it was "supposed to have been meant for" it is being used by one individual as a means of him manipulating the courts for financial gain. 

If the mainline media will not take  this up I will publish this myself on line via social media as I want all to know "That this piece of law is an ass"  and being corruptly used by nominally one man. 

This also leads to the courts being used as a weapon of revenge for this one person (which 'is not' what they are designed for)

The courts have never been designed both in Politics  or the public domain to be used as a weapon of revenge. The courts and tribunals are set up as a means of enacting the law for the benefit of the  people. They were never designed to be misused as a means of gaining financial benefits for one person and being used as a weapon of Revenge.




Written by John Christopher Sunol 






Wednesday, 2 November 2016

I am not paying Garry $53,000: I am applying for a second bankrupty so I do not have to pay this theif


I am in the process of filing for a second bankruptcy as i do not have the money to get the $53,000 and just come out of a bankruptcy from January 2014. 

This is happening right now and there is nothing Garry can do about this but I will not pay him

He is a thief and a con man. I am going apply for a second bankruptcy. I have already spoken to lawyers and down loaded the forms which I will take home, fill in and file them.

I am definitely not giving him a chance to take me for more money and that is final. He is only a theif and I am determined to fight over these issues.

I will not sell my home to get money to pay him as that would give him a chance to get others who want money to put in more false claims about me



  1.  I do not vilify anyone including homosexuals and never have
  2. These who set of cases are all based on lies.
  3. I am not going to give in as I do not have the $53,000 needed and can not get it, I am NOT GOING TO SELL MY HOME TO PAY A THIEF AS THAT IS ALL HE IS, A THIEF WHO MANIPULATED THE LAW TO SUIT HIS OWN NEEDS. (Civil case law through Administrative decisions tribunals)  
I man business and I am not willing to give in as I have nothing to loose. If I was to sell my home I would have excess cash and that would give others the opportunity to claim some of the Gravy train and I am not going to give in to this.

THIS GROUP IS THE CURSE OF NSW and I declare all out open warfare with it to the very end. I blame it and this man Garry is only the fall guy for this group and others like Politicians. So for me to give in and apologize would serve no purpose but to give them a tactical win and this could be bad for everyone as it sets case law.

I am going to fill in a form and post it to the correct place for a second bankruptcy as this was set upon me by people who hate me and are realy nothing but liars and trouble makers.

Published by John Christopher Sunol

There is alot off truth mixed in this with Propaganda and bullshit as well / Climate Change





This is part of Agenda 2030 sustainability onference as a Planning tool for world sustainable development which is in the planning  stage of development. It will bring in many issues and I feel it is my own role for society to get everyone prepared for this when it hits us in full


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Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences (2010)

Chapter: 1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?

« Previous: Part II: Strategic Research Questions
Page 21 
Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
×

1
How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth’s Surface?

Accelerated human modification of the landscape and human-driven climate changes are fundamentally altering Earth’s surface processes and creating ecological challenges that scientists and policy makers are struggling to address. The environmental impacts of human activity are expected to increase as the climate continues to warm and as the world becomes progressively more populated, industrialized, and urbanized. Scientific research has generally succeeded in documenting the magnitude of these biophysical changes, including habitat loss and fragmentation, soil erosion, biodiversity loss, and water depletion and degradation. Yet the exact processes leading to these changes are still not adequately understood and quantified, and we still lack the best methods and techniques for detecting, measuring, and analyzing global change.
Soil erosion provides a prime example to understand what is at stake. Although a natural process, soil erosion has greatly accelerated globally due to cultivation, deforestation, and a host of other land-use practices (Montgomery, 2007a,b; Figure 1.1). Increased soil erosion generates sediment supply that often exceeds the transport capacity of stream systems, leading to vast sediment storage on channel beds, on hillslopes, and in floodplains. This historical sedimentation has already had significant impacts on channel processes, aquatic systems, and fisheries (Waters, 1995; NRC, 2004). Moreover, these legacy sediments represent a future risk because they can be remobilized and introduced into aquatic systems even following landscape amelioration (Walter and Merrits, 2008).
Anticipated climate change will heighten the human impact on the physical environment in many places. Predicting the magnitude and timing of these future impacts remains uncertain, but measurable changes have already occurred climatically (Elsner et al., 2008) and hydrologically over the past few decades, with earlier ice-out dates, reduced magnitudes of spring runoff and summer low flows, and changes in the timing of peak streamflows (Hodgkins et al., 2002, 2003; Huntington et al., 2003, 2004). Future climate change will likely bring greater hydrological and ecological shifts nationally and globally, with potentially profound impacts on water availability (Arnell, 2004; Milly et al., 2005; IPCC, 2007).
Earth surface changes, then, frequently raise resource management challenges, prompting efforts at ecological restoration, and environmental legislation often requires communities or other stakeholders to restore stream channels or wetlands. Yet it is uncertain how, and under what circumstances, most disturbed natural systems can recover, and even less is known about the baseline conditions that may potentially guide restoration efforts. Despite the development of a billion-dollar-a-year restoration industry, the science of watershed restoration is still in its infancy (Wohl et al., 2005; Walter and Merrits, 2008). Large uncertainties remain in other aspects of wetland and river restoration as well, including the ecological and economic tradeoffs of structural (“hard”) vs. nonstructural (“soft”) approaches and, more importantly, the metrics, goals, and time frames for guiding and achieving watershed restoration. These are just a few examples of the
Page 22 
Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
×

FIGURE 1.1 Comparison of natural erosion rates (over geological time) to agricultural soil erosion rates in relation to rates of soil production. The graph line comprising squares shows the rates of natural soil production, the circles show natural geological erosion, and the top line of diamonds shows agricultural erosion far exceeding the other two rates. SOURCE: Montgomery (2007a).
FIGURE 1.1 Comparison of natural erosion rates (over geological time) to agricultural soil erosion rates in relation to rates of soil production. The graph line comprising squares shows the rates of natural soil production, the circles show natural geological erosion, and the top line of diamonds shows agricultural erosion far exceeding the other two rates. SOURCE: Montgomery (2007a).
practical and scientific reasons why we need to better understand the impacts of humans on Earth’s physical environment.

ROLE OF THE GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCES

Because natural processes vary spatially and across scales, a geographical perspective is essential to understanding their nature and character. The perspectives and tools of the geographical sciences used by geographers, geologists, ecologists, and others provide insights into soil erosion, flood magnitude and frequency, and ecological adjustments to climate change on both contemporary and paleotimescales. One significant area of investigation focuses on watershed response to and recovery from environmental changes, including Quaternary (past 2-3 million years) climatic changes and historical human-induced landscape changes. For example, because river systems respond to the integrative effects of climate and watershed processes, changes in streamflow, channel properties, and fluvial deposits provide information on the timing, direction, and magnitude of postglacial climate changes, suggesting that even modest climate shifts can generate significant changes in streamflow (Knox, 1993). Analyses of fluvial stratigraphic records have proved to be important because the identification of paleoflood occurrence extends the researchable time frame of these low-frequency events well beyond the stream gauge record, thus improving flood forecasting (Enzel et al., 1993; Baker, 1998) and capturing the periodicity of highly variable climatic episodes such as El Niño events (Gomez et al., 2004; Magilligan et al., 2008). These paleorecords suggest that climatic stationarity (the mean and variance of a time series) has not remained constant over time (Milly et al., 2008), which raises questions about existing water allocation arrangements because the stationarity assumption is the cornerstone of dam design and water allocation strategies. Higher resolution and longer-term datasets, such as those that can come from dendrochronology, can help capture these statistical shifts.
The geographical sciences have contributed to our understanding of floods as well, especially in relation to land-use changes. The massive construction of dams over the past several hundred years has had a profound impact on the hydrological regime (Figure 1.2), often leading to hydrological modifications exceeding the impacts of climate change (Magilligan et al., 2003; Magilligan and Nislow, 2005). Using archival national data, Graf (1999) identified more than 80,000 dams that have been constructed in the United States—essentially 1 dam per day on average since the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Graf ’s examination of the geographical location and context of these dams showed marked regional variations in dam number and type; most of the dams in the United States are in the eastern half of the country, although dams with the greatest impact on storage are found in the West (Graf, 1999, 2001). This pattern suggests that, although watershed fragmentation may be considerable in the eastern United States, ecological impacts due to flow reductions may be more significant in the western part of the country. Other field-based studies have provided fundamental insights into the profound
Page 23 
Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
×

FIGURE 1.2 Number of dams constructed in the United States over the past 200 years (by decade) categorized by dam height. SOURCE: Doyle et al. (2003).
FIGURE 1.2 Number of dams constructed in the United States over the past 200 years (by decade) categorized by dam height. SOURCE: Doyle et al. (2003).
and sustained changes resulting from flow regulation, including changes in channel properties, sediment transport, and reduced ecological habitat (Chin et al. 2002; Phillips et al., 2005).
Because of their concern with spatiotemporal dynamics, geographical scientists have been at the forefront of efforts to use paleoenvironmental data to provide long proxy records of climatic and environmental change. Through techniques such as fossil pollen analysis, fossil charcoal analysis, tree-ring analysis, diatom analysis, chironomid analysis, and various sedimentological and geochemical techniques, geographical scientists have been able to reconstruct changes in terrestrial and aquatic environments on timescales ranging from decades to millennia. Such reconstructions can identify the specific nature of human impacts in the past, provide insight into the natural variability in environmental systems prior to human alteration, and show how environments have responded to past episodes of climate change. They can also be used to validate climate models used for estimating future climate change scenarios (Figure 1.3). In addition to providing qualitative and quantitative information on past environments, paleontological approaches are increasingly being refined and used to provide quantitative records of past temperature, precipitation, drought severity, and river flow (Cook et al., 2007). These records provide the only means of identifying the processes creating climatic variability and determining when anthropogenic climate changes have exceeded natural variability (Diffenbaugh et al., 2006; Herweijer et al., 2006; MacDonald et al., 2008b).
The integrated and synthetic research that is a hallmark of the geographical sciences is essential to address one of the major challenges in climate-change research: determining the natural (as opposed to human) contribution to climatic variability. Many paleoclimatic records and long instrumental data series provide evidence of variations in temperature that persist for decades to centuries. This natural variability in the climate system has two important implications for anticipating the impacts of global warming from increased greenhouse gases. First, if we do not understand their causes and properties, natural variations in climate make it difficult to detect or attribute current and future changes in climate to anthropogenic factors such as increased greenhouse gases. Second, such natural variations are likely to persist even in the face of greenhouse gas–induced climate changes and should be taken into account when planning for climate change. Often the relationships between the ultimate climatic forcing factors are mediated by complex relationships between the atmosphere, oceans, and land surface that play out differently from place to place (Feddema et al., 2005).
Page 24 
Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
×

FIGURE 1.3 A mapped summary of changes in plant taxa distributions and biome distributions over the past 10,000 years based on sites in the North American Pollen Data Base. NOTES: CCON = cool conifer forest, CDEC = cold deciduous forest, CLMX = cool mixed forest, CWOD = conifer woodland, DESE = desert, MXPA = mixed parkland, SPPA = spruce parkland, STEP = steppe, TAIG = taiga, TDEC = temperate deciduous forest, TUND = tundra, WMMX = warm mixed forest, XERO = xerophytic scrub. SOURCE: Williams et al. (2004).
FIGURE 1.3 A mapped summary of changes in plant taxa distributions and biome distributions over the past 10,000 years based on sites in the North American Pollen Data Base. NOTES: CCON = cool conifer forest, CDEC = cold deciduous forest, CLMX = cool mixed forest, CWOD = conifer woodland, DESE = desert, MXPA = mixed parkland, SPPA = spruce parkland, STEP = steppe, TAIG = taiga, TDEC = temperate deciduous forest, TUND = tundra, WMMX = warm mixed forest, XERO = xerophytic scrub. SOURCE: Williams et al. (2004).
The synthesis of different measures of climate change over long temporal scales and across space is required to link particular forcing factors to climatic variations. The following questions are examples of research that would be particularly productive to pursue as part of the effort to refine understanding of the impacts of humans on the biophysical environment. Examples from the fluvial sciences are used to illustrate the importance of the research, largely because watershed processes are major landscape-forming agents. However, applications in the coastal, aeolian, hillslope, weathering, and glacial sciences also represent important avenues for research.
Page 25 
Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
×

RESEARCH SUBQUESTIONS


What are the natural rates of Earth’s surface processes and how has human activity affected them?
Human activity has altered terrestrial, aquatic, and marine ecosystems, and these effects exceed natural baseline conditions. Although progress has been made in determining natural rates of earth-surface processes relative to anthropogenic effects, more research is needed across a suite of processes and regions, with greater attention paid to theoretically informed, empirically grounded assessments of the causes and consequences of anthropogenic disturbance. Anthropogenic impacts have been profound across a suite of earth-surface processes. The significance and scope of these impacts is evident in fluvial systems, for example. Yet erosion and transport rates of sediments stored within watersheds are still poorly understood, as is the residence time of these sediments. Moreover, sediments stored in floodplains represent a vast but currently unknown reservoir of material. These sediments are often contaminated with agricultural pesticides and herbicides. If stored for an adequate time, the toxicity of these contaminants attenuates, but if released by subsequent channel erosion, they may lead to progressive degradation of biotic habitats and contribute to degraded water quality, especially if resulting sediment concentrations exceed Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards for turbidity.
The renewed focus on landscape evolution requires accurate measures of erosion and sediment yield and necessitates studies to determine what component of the total contemporary sediment yield can be attributed to the human imprint. The application of contemporary measured sediment yields to these long-term studies may lead to unknown errors in calculating long-term (geological time) landscape erosion rates. On more contemporary timescales, the recent application of fallout radionuclides, such as 7Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb, has led to greater understanding of erosion and sedimentation rates and their spatial variability (Walling et al., 1999; Kaste et al., 2006), but more studies are needed over larger spatial scales to more accurately link processes of erosion to sedimentation and contaminant sequestration.
Equally important, more refined geographical analysis of hydrological responses to climate and environmental change can provide insight into the variable contributions of nature and humans to earth-surface changes. Climate models generally agree that wet areas will become progressively wetter (IPCC, 2007), but it remains uncertain how that atmospheric shift will translate hydrologically. Fluvial theory suggests that the magnitude and frequency of floods will increase as the climate gets wetter, but the impacts may be more complex, including changes in the timing of floods and the relative shift in the relationship between sediment peaks and streamflow. Previous research on paleofloods provides important insights into fluvial responses to climate change. Research in this vein is spatially incomplete, however, with most of the work restricted to the United States and Western Europe (Baker, 2008). More studies are needed globally, and past flood chronologies need greater temporal calibration and resolution. Recent advances in dating techniques, including optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), can help in this task, because they allow for more accurate dating of paleofloods, especially in regions where 14C dating is limited, such as in deserts or in situations exceeding the temporal bounds of 14C dating (~50 ka).

How can we best plan for and implement landscaperestorations when disturbed areas are constantlyinfluenced by human activity?
Few places on Earth remain unaffected by human activity. As anthropogenic disturbances have increased in magnitude and areal coverage during the past century, there has been a corresponding increase in efforts to mitigate their impacts. Hydrological systems, for example, have been especially affected by human activity, ultimately leading to demands for remediation; however, the science of watershed restoration lags far behind the need for, and application of, mitigation strategies (Wohl et al., 2005). Management strategies range from complete preservation and removal of direct human impacts to attempts to restore and rehabilitate some element of biophysical functioning and ecological integrity. Potential approaches may be constrained by legal and socioeconomic limitations, but also by not having an accurate understanding of biophysical processes, relaxation times, and the scientific metrics of successful restoration.
Page 26 
Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
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Because of extensive channelization, damming, and other structural modifications, most rivers—both in the United States and globally—are ecologically impaired, resulting in a wide range of impacts including habitat loss and fragmentation, interruptions in the hydrological regime, and changes in water quality and temperature (Stanford and Ward, 1993, 2001; Poff et al., 1997; Magilligan et al., 2003). To combat this degradation, efforts are under way to restore everything from small tributaries to rivers as large as the Rhine and ecosystems as vast as the Everglades. Management agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service and the Nature Conservancy are demanding the implementation of “environmental flows” that capture predisturbance conditions, but these goals may not be attainable given existing stakeholder demands and sociopolitical realities. Moreover, unknown complexities exist where, for example, establishing a flow regime to meet hydrological connectivity may have repercussions on sedimentation and aquatic habitat (Kondolf and Wilcock, 1996). More research needs to be directed at determining the correct magnitude and timing of flows to accommodate management goals within a context of humanized landscapes where complete restoration is impractical and where it is difficult or impossible to assess the precise character of a system not disturbed by humans. There needs to be better development of process-based restoration efforts (Kondolf et al., 2006; Doyle et al., 2007; Simon et al., 2007). In some instances, though, river restoration cannot be fully achieved because of social and technical limitations; hence there is a growing focus on river rehabilitation aimed at reestablishing fundamental riverine processes (Wohl et al., 2005). Successful restoration and rehabilitation efforts typically require collaborative research teams of geographers, ecologists, and other scientists conducting long-term field experiments and manipulations to assess the best possible restoration outcomes.
The coming decades will require greater attention to sediment impacts associated with changing environmental conditions. For example, with more than 500 dams removed thus far in the United States and many more targeted for removal in the relatively near future, there is a pressing need to advance understanding of the impacts of sediment fluxes as stream channels reestablish new equilibrium profiles. Moreover, the release of stored sediment has unknown ecological impacts. As dam removal is increasingly recommended as a panacea for habitat restoration, it is important to consider whether the release of stored sediment, in some instances, may be harmful to ecosystem functioning (Stanley and Doyle, 2002; Sethi et al., 2004; Snyder et al., 2004). The focus on sediment dynamics will require more sophisticated approaches, including numerical modeling, parameter estimation, flume studies, and field-based empirical approaches. Novel tracing studies are emerging to document sediment fluxes and residence times, including single-grain OSL, geochemical tracers such as 7Be and 210Pb, and active (radio) and passive (iron, magnetic) tracers (Schmidt and Ergenzinger, 1992; DeLong and Arnold, 2007; Salant et al., 2007). These approaches need refinement and broader application across a continuum of depositional environments. And studies that focus on the role of geographical context in producing detected stream-channel adjustments offer tremendous potential across the geosciences.

What tools offer particular promise in the effort to detect and measure changes in earth-surfaceprocesses, and how might those tools be deployedto enhance understanding of the impacts of humans on Earth’s physical environment?
Advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems have radically transformed the physical sciences, providing innovative opportunities to measure, analyze, and visualize geographical data and to raise and answer important new research questions (see Chapter 10). The magnitude and scale of environmental change makes it imperative that we utilize these new technologies to document global change, and to develop appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies. Remote sensing technologies have enormous potential to facilitate the identification of regions at risk and to assess the magnitude and types of environmental changes that are occurring. They are also critical to the development of early warning systems. Moreover, some of the most far-reaching future environmental changes are likely to occur in regions lacking adequate data or long-term databases (e.g., eastern Africa, southwestern Asia, and the polar regions) (IPCC, 2007)—making the application of remote sensing in these areas all the more important (Box 1.1). Remote sensing analysis has
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Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
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BOX 1.1
Monitoring Changing Hydrological Conditions in Polar Regions Using Remote Sensing
With global climate change models indicating that high-latitude regions will experience the greatest impact of global warming, there has been a concentrated effort to understand the complex environmental shifts occurring in polar regions. Because these regions are vast and often lack on-the-ground observation and data collection, remote sensing offers an important opportunity to monitor and track hydrological, ecological, and geomorphic adjustments. Using a historical archive of satellite images in Siberia, Smith et al. (2005) monitored the changing surface area of more than 10,000 large lakes and showed a widespread decline in lake abundance and area since 1973 (see Figure). The rapid warming occurring in this vast region over the ~50 years generates major permafrost thawing, leading to significant subsurface lake drainage. The total number of large lakes (those >40 ha) decreased by ~11 percent between 1973 and 1997-1998. In general, most lakes shrank to sizes below 40 ha rather than disappearing completely, with total regional lake surface area decreasing by ~6 percent. Satellite imagery revealed that 125 lakes vanished completely. Their subsequent monitoring further confirms that none of these lakes have refilled since 1997-1998 and are thus considered to be permanently drained.

(A) Locations of Siberian lake inventories, permafrost distribution, and vanished lakes. (B) Total lake abundance and inundation area have declined since 1973, including (C) permanent drainage and revegetation of former lakebeds (the arrow and oval show representative areas). (D) Net increases in lake abundance and area have occurred in continuous permafrost, suggesting an initial but transitory increase in surface ponding. SOURCE: Smith et al. (2005).
(A) Locations of Siberian lake inventories, permafrost distribution, and vanished lakes. (B) Total lake abundance and inundation area have declined since 1973, including (C) permanent drainage and revegetation of former lakebeds (the arrow and oval show representative areas). (D) Net increases in lake abundance and area have occurred in continuous permafrost, suggesting an initial but transitory increase in surface ponding. SOURCE: Smith et al. (2005).
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Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
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already proved beneficial in documenting the recent shrinking of subtropical highland glaciers (Coudrain et al., 2005), but more detailed, longer-term remote sensing can expand our understanding further. Similarly, remote sensing is capturing the widespread fragmentation of tropical forests (Morton et al., 2006), yet longer term geographical records are needed, as are remote sensing studies and on-the-ground surveys that can synthesize and analyze the integrated physical and biological effects of deforestation on human and biological communities.
One of the most significant recent advances in remote sensing is lidar (light detection and ranging), which provides very high resolution topographic data (Figure 1.4). Lidar systems transmit pulses of visible or near-infrared laser light from an aircraft to the surface. By measuring the time it takes for the pulses to be reflected, the elevation of the surface can be calculated. Because the costs are relatively high, most lidar missions cover only relatively small areas, and many regions have not yet been mapped. Nonetheless, the centimeter-scale resolution of lidar offers enormous opportunities in the physical sciences, especially in documenting global sea-level change, erosion and uplift of mountain ranges, agricultural soil erosion, glacial retreat, and postflood stream-channel changes. When multiple lidar returns are recorded for each location, the data can be used both to map the topography of the ground surface and to infer characteristics of vegetation, such as tree height (Andersen et al., 2006).
Other remote sensing sources of topographic information also exist. Interferometric radar has been used to map broader areas at coarser spatial resolution than lidar systems, as demonstrated in the February 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, which mapped 80 percent of the world’s land surface during an 11-day

FIGURE 1.4 A high-resolution lidar image of a coastal bluff south of San Francisco, California, showing erosion over a 6-month period. The majority of bluff loss occurred in the fall (blue), with smaller sections of the bluff eroding in the spring (orange and pink) for a total horizontal loss at the top of the bluff of 7-10 meters (23-33 feet). Lidar also allowed the total volume of the eroded bluff material to be calculated, a key component in the development of an accurate sediment budget for this section of coastline. Such lidar-derived information is valuable to coastal managers interested both in the timing and magnitude of coastal erosion events and understanding where material lost from eroding bluffs is likely to accumulate. This information can guide development decisions adjacent to the bluffs, but was not commonly available prior to the development of lidar. SOURCE: Brian Collins, U.S. Geological Survey, 2004.
FIGURE 1.4 A high-resolution lidar image of a coastal bluff south of San Francisco, California, showing erosion over a 6-month period. The majority of bluff loss occurred in the fall (blue), with smaller sections of the bluff eroding in the spring (orange and pink) for a total horizontal loss at the top of the bluff of 7-10 meters (23-33 feet). Lidar also allowed the total volume of the eroded bluff material to be calculated, a key component in the development of an accurate sediment budget for this section of coastline. Such lidar-derived information is valuable to coastal managers interested both in the timing and magnitude of coastal erosion events and understanding where material lost from eroding bluffs is likely to accumulate. This information can guide development decisions adjacent to the bluffs, but was not commonly available prior to the development of lidar. SOURCE: Brian Collins, U.S. Geological Survey, 2004.
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Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
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period. When interferometric radar data are collected at multiple points in time, differential interferometric analysis can be used to measure centimeter-scale changes in topography over broad areas, such as those resulting from seismic activity along faults, ground subsidence due to groundwater or oil extraction, and changes in glaciers and ice sheets (Kwok and Fahnestock, 1996; Bürgmann et al., 2000). Although interferometric radar provides coarser resolution than lidar systems, its global coverage from satellite platforms is currently more temporally and spatially extensive, and it shows exceptional promise for many applications in the physical sciences.
There are several areas in watershed science that could benefit from remote sensing applications. The U.S. Geological Survey operates a dense network of stream gauges in the United States, yet there is a paucity of gauges globally and thus large parts of the world lack adequate data on streamflow. With the application of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)—two satellites gathering remote sensing data—it is becoming increasingly possible to measure streamflow (Smith, 1997; Brakenridge et al., 1998, 2007) and sediment load (Gomez et al., 1995) from satellites. Other promising approaches include mapping of stream-channel habitat using hyperspectral imagery (Marcus et al., 2003; Marcus and Fonstad, 2008) and integrating meteorological data and watershed response (Smith et al., 2007). Although launched for mapping gravity anomalies and crustal characteristics, one of the important extensions from the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment ) satellite has been the documentation of groundwater levels from space (Strassberg, et al. 2009). Destined to be launched in 2013 (NRC, 2007a), the SWOT (Surface Water Ocean Topography) satellite mission offers enormous potential to monitor global-scale hydrological changes and map surface-water elevations. These rapid and remote techniques have great potential for the geographical study of fluvial systems. The utilization and incorporation of remote sensing into a range of investigations of hydrological and ecological phenomena offer researchers opportunities for collaborative and interdisciplinary studies (Walsh et al., 2003) that can lead to more spatially explicit, and therefore more useful, models of biophysical processes.

SUMMARY

As the foregoing examples make clear, spatial analysis, field-based research, geographical visualization, and fine-grained contextual studies are critical to assessing the magnitude and types of global biophysical adjustments that are presently occurring. The approaches and techniques of the geographical sciences can help identify and quantify the biophysical changes unfolding on Earth’s surface, and they can offer insights into the processes shaping those changes at different scales. Geographical science approaches and techniques thus have an important role to play in advancing scientific understanding of biophysical changes and facilitating the efforts of resource managers and policy makers to confront Earth’s changing environment.
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Suggested Citation"1 How Are We Changing the Physical Environment of Earth's Surface?." National Research Council. Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010. doi:10.17226/12860.
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Understanding the Changing Planet: Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences
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From the oceans to continental heartlands, human activities have altered the physical characteristics of Earth's surface. With Earth's population projected to peak at 8 to 12 billion people by 2050 and the additional stress of climate change, it is more important than ever to understand how and where these changes are happening. Innovation in the geographical sciences has the potential to advance knowledge of place-based environmental change, sustainability, and the impacts of a rapidly changing economy and society.
Understanding the Changing Planet outlines eleven strategic directions to focus research and leverage new technologies to harness the potential that the geographical sciences offer.